Osteoporosis affects more than 10 million Americans and accounts for 1.5 million fractures annually. Several treatment options have been shown to prevent fractures and improve outcomes in patients with osteoporosis. Alendronate and risedronate clearly reduce fractures and are good initial choices in many patients. Raloxifene and calcitonin reduce the risk of vertebral fractures and may be appropriate in certain patients. Teriparatide was recently approved by FDA for the treatment of osteoporosis and may offer another treatment option. Combination therapy has been shown to increase bone mineral density; however, a reduction in the risk of fractures remains to be established. Zoledronic acid may offer an advantage of reduced frequency of administration.