Diana M. Sobieraj, PharmD, BCPS

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Articles

Drugs in Perspective: Oxytrol goes over-the-counter

February 03, 2014

Anti-muscarinic drugs are an option in the treatment of overactive bladder which is defined as urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia, in the absence of a urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology.Oral oxybutynin has been available by prescription for over 40 years, initially marketed as Ditropan® and Ditropan XL® although now generically availably, in addition to the transdermal patch Oxytrol and transdermal gel Gelnique. As an antagonist at muscarinic receptors, oxybutynin leads to relaxation of the smooth muscle of the bladder which leads to increased bladder capacity, decreased involuntary contractions and decreased urgency and frequency of both voluntary and incontinent episodes. The suggested dose is one patch applied for 4 consecutive days, after which the patch should be removed and a new one applied.

Apixaban: An orally active factor Xa inhibitor to prevent strokes and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

May 01, 2012

Apixiban (Eliquis) is an orally active factor Xa inhibitor. Its manufacturers are seeking FDA approval to market apixaban to reduce risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular AF (NVAF).